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Edibles/Vegetables
 ABELMOSCHUS esculentus  Okra    a-bel-mos’kus es-ku-len’tus  Vegetable  Easy Malvaceae; native to the tropics. Germination: If the summer growing season is short and spring is cool, start seeds indoors, 4-6 weeks before planting out, at a...
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Flowers/Annuals
 ABELMOSCHUS manihot  Hibiscus, Mallow    a-bel-mos’kus man-i-hot  Annual  Easy Malvaceae; native to Europe and Asia. Germination: For best results, clip seeds before sowing, or soak them in water-they will sink when they are ready to be...
| 5573 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Potted Plants
 ABUTILON x hybridum  Flowering Maple  Zone 10  a-bu’til-on x hi’brid-um  Pot Plant  Easy Malvaceae; native to South America. Germination: To grow as houseplants, sow anytime of the year, barely covering the seed and maintaining a...
| 5914 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ACANTHUS species  Bear’s Breeches  Zones variable  å-kan’thus  Perennial  Challenging Acanthaceae; native to Southern Europe. Germination: Sow seeds in their permanent location if possible; Acanthus resents transplanting. Sow indoors...
| 6569 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ACHILLEA species  Milfoil, Yarrow  Zones 3-10  å-kil’le-å  Perennial  Easy Asteraceae; native to Europe and Asia. Germination: The fine seed requires light to germinate, so leave it uncovered. Sow outdoors anytime in spring or summer, up...
| 5301 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Potted Plants
 ACHIMENES cultivars  Magic Flower, Nut Orchid  Zone 10  å-kim’in-ez  Pot Plant, Bedding Plant  Challenging Gesneriaceae; native to tropical America. Germination: Sow indoors anytime of the year for use as a container plant. For outdoor...
| 6401 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Bedding Plants
 ACHIMENES cultivars  Magic Flower, Nut Orchid  Zone 10  å-kim’in-ez  Pot Plant, Bedding Plant  Challenging Gesneriaceae; native to tropical America. Germination: Sow indoors anytime of the year for use as a container plant. For outdoor...
| 5259 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
ACONITUM hybrid  Monkshood  Zones 3-8  a-ko-ni’tum  Perennial  Challenging Ranunculaceae; native to China. Germination: Sow outdoors in late fall or early winter, covering the seeds with 4 times their thickness in soil. Indoors, place the...
| 5296 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 AGAPANTHUS africanus & hybrids  African Lily  Variable  ag-å-pan’thus af’ri-ka’nus  Perennial, Pot Plant  Moderate Lilaceae; native to northeast Africa. Germination: Sow indoors anytime, covering the seeds lightly and maintaining a...
| 5037 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 AGASTACHE cana   Giant Hyssop  Zones 5-10  åg-å-stak’-e ka’na   Perennial  Easy   Lamiaceae; native to New Mexico and West Texas. Germination: Sow indoors, covering the seeds with 4 times their thickness in soil and maintaining a...
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Edibles/Perennial Herbs
 AGASTACHE foeniculum  Anise Hyssop  Zones 3 to 9  å-gå’ståk’e fo-nik’u-lum  Perennial Herb  Easy Lamiaceae; native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean. Germination: Best sown indoors at a temperature of 68-70° and with no cover...
| 3936 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
AGERATUM houstonianum Floss Flower    a-jer-å’tum hos-toni-e-a’num Annual Easy Asteraceae; native to Mexico. Germination: For outdoor growth, sow indoors 6-8 weeks before planting outside; for container growth, sow anytime of the year. Leave...
| 4570 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ALCEA rosa (Althea rosea)  Hollyhock  Zones 3-9  al-se’å ros’å  Biennial, Perennial  Easy Malvaceae; native to China. Germination: Sow perennial varieties outdoors anytime in spring or summer, up to 2 months before first fall frost....
| 4099 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Biennials
 ALCEA rosa (Althea rosea)  Hollyhock  Zones 3-9  al-se’å ros’å  Biennial, Perennial  Easy Malvaceae; native to China. Germination: Sow perennial varieties outdoors anytime in spring or summer, up to 2 months before first fall frost....
| 8021 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ALCHEMILLA mollis  Lady’s Mantle  Zones 4-9  al-kem-ill‘å mol’is  Perennial  Moderate Rosaceae; native to Europe and Asia. Germination: For best results, sow indoors, leaving seed uncovered and maintaining 65-68° F during...
| 3779 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Vegetables
 ALLIUM ampeloprasum Porrum Group  Leek    al’e-um am-pe’lo-pra-sum  Vegetable  Easy Liliaceae; native to Europe, North Africa, and Asia. Germination: Best started indoors as transplanted leeks have more vigor and get a head start on their...
| 2974 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Vegetables
 ALLIUM cepa  Onion    al’e-um se’på  Vegetable  Easy Liliaceae; nativity unknown. Germination: Best sown outdoors in situ after all danger of frost is past in the spring and the soil is warm. In Zones 8 and warmer, seeds can be sown in...
| 3021 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Vegetables
 ALLIUM cepa Aggregatum Group  Shallots    al’e-um se’på  Vegetable  Moderate Liliaceae; native to western Asia. Germination: Best sown indoors at a temperature of 68-70°. Seeds can also be sown outdoors in situ after all danger of frost...
| 3672 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Perennial Herbs
 ALLIUM schoenoprasum  Chives  Zones 3 to 7  al’e-um sho’-no-pra-sum  Perennial Herb  Easy Liliaceae; native to Europe and Asia. Germination: Sow indoors at a temperature of 68-70° and at a depth of 4 times the size of the seeds. Expect...
| 3306 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ALLIUM species  Flowering Onion  Zones in text below  al’le-um species  Perennial  Easy Lilaceae; native to Asia and Europe. Germination: Allium species have erratic germination, but the rate is improved by pre-chilling the seed in a...
| 3395 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ALSTROEMERIA aurea (aurantiaca) hybrids  Peruvian Lily  Zones 6 to 10  al-stre-mer’e-å  Perennial  Challenging   Alstromeriaceae; native to South America. Germination: Sow outdoors in early spring while the soil is cool. Or sow...
| 4420 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 ALTERNANTHERA, dentata  Joseph’s Coat    al-ter-nan’the-rå den-ta’tå  Annual  Easy Amaranthaceae; native to West Indies and Brazil. Germination: For best results, sow indoors leaving the seeds uncovered and maintaining temperatures...
| 4490 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ALYSSUM montanum Basket of Gold Zones 5-8  å-liss’um mön’ta-num Perennial    Brassicaceae; native to the Mediterranean. Germination: Sow outdoors in early spring, leaving seed uncovered, or Sow indoors, leaving seeds uncovered and...
| 4230 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 AMARANTHUS tricolor, A. caudatus , A. creuntus  Summer Poinsettia, Joseph’s Coat, Love Lies-Bleeding, Princess Feather    am-å-ran’thus try’kull-lûr   Annual   Easy   Amaranthaceae; native to †he Tropics, India, and the...
| 4980 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 AMMI majus  False Queen Anne’s Lace    am’mi ma’jus   Annual  Easy Apiaceae; native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa. Germination: Sow outdoors in spring, barely covering the seed. Or sow indoors, leaving seed  uncovered and...
| 4945 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Biennials
 AMMOBIUM alatum, A. ‘Bikini’  Winged Everlasting   Zone 9  am-mo’be-um a-lay’tum a. bi-ke’ne  Biennial, Annual   Easy Asteraceae; native to Australia. Germination: Sow outdoors anytime, spring or summer, up to 2 months before...
| 5553 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 AMMOBIUM alatum, A. ‘Bikini’  Winged Everlasting   Zone 9  am-mo’be-um a-lay’tum a. bi-ke’ne  Biennial, Annual   Easy Asteraceae; native to Australia. Germination: Sow outdoors anytime, spring or summer, up to 2 months before...
| 4084 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Annual Herbs
 ANETHUM graveolens  Dill    å-ne’thum grå-veo’-lenz  Annual Herb  Easy Apiaceae; native to southwest Asia. Germination: Sow indoors at a temperature of 60-70°. Sow in individual pots to facilitate transplanting of the tap root....
| 4425 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ANGELICA species   Angelica   Variable  an-jel’e-kå   Perennial   Challenging Carrot family (Apiaceae); native to Eastern Europe and North America. Germination: Sow outdoors in late fall for spring germination, or sow indoors after...
| 3214 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Perennial Herbs
 ANGUISORBA minor (Poterium sanguisorba)  Salad Burnet  Zones 3 to 9  sang-gwi-sôr’bå mi’nôr  Perennial Herb  Easy Rosaceae; native to Europe and west Asia. Germination: Sow seeds indoors at a temperature of 68-70° and at a depth of 4...
| 4422 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Annual Herbs
 ANTHRISCUS cerefolium  Chervil    an-thris’cus ser-e-fol’e-um  Annual  Easy Apiaceae; native to southeastern Europe and western Asia. Germination: Sow outdoors in early spring or sow indoors at a temperature of 60-70°. Expect germination...
| 4346 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 ANTIRRHINUM majus   Snapdragon    an-ti-ri’num ma’jus  Annual    Easy Scrophulariaceae, native to Europe and the Mediterranean. Germination: Best sown indoors, 6-8 weeks before planting out, at a temperature of 68-70° and with no...
| 4502 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Vegetables
 APIUM graveolens var. dulce  Celery    ap’e-um grå-ve’o-lenz dul’cha  Vegetable  Difficult Apiaceae; native to Eurasia. Germination: Sow seeds indoors, 10-12 weeks before planting out, at a temperature of 70-75° with no cover as light...
| 3371 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Vegetables
 APIUM graveolens var. rapaceum  Celeriac    ap’e-um grå-ve’o-lenz rå-pa’se-um  Vegetable  Moderate Apiaceae; native to Europe. Germination: Sow seeds indoors at 68-70° with no cover as light aids in germination. Seeds will germinate...
| 2206 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 AQUILEGIA species  Columbine Zones 4 to 8  ak-wi-le'ji-å  Perennial   Easy Ranunculaceae, native to the northern hemisphere. Germination: Sow seeds indoors at a temperature of 68-70° and with no cover as light aids in germination. Expect...
| 3356 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ARABIS caucasica  Rock Cress, Wall Cress  Zones 4 to 8  ar’å-bis kâ-kas’i-kå  Perennial  Moderate Brassicaceae, native to the Mediterranean. Germination: Best sown indoors at alternating temperatures of 55 and 72°. Sow with no cover...
| 3670 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Vegetables
 ARACHIS hypogaea  Peanut    å-ra’kis hi-po-geå  Vegetable  Easy Fabaceae; native to southern Brazil. Germination: Best sown outdoors in situ after all danger of frost is past in the spring and when the soil is warm. Seeds can also be sown...
| 2312 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 ARCTOTIS stoechadifolia  African Daisy    ärk-to’tis sto-e-kad-i-fo’li-å   Annual   Moderate   Asteraceae, native to South Africa. Germination: Best sown indoors, 6-8 weeks before planting out, at alternating temperatures of 55 and...
| 4170 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ARISAEMA sikokianum   Jack-in-Pulpit  Zones 5 to 9  ar-i-se’må si-kok-e’a-num   Perennial  Difficult Araceae, native to Asia and North America. Germination: Sow indoors at alternating temperatures of 55 and 72°. Sow at a depth of 4...
| 3985 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 ARISTOLOCHIA littoralis  Calico flower    a-ris-to-lo’ki-å lit-to-ra’lis  Annual*  Moderate Aristolochiaceae, native to the Tropics. Germination: Best sown indoors at alternating temperatures of 68 and 86°. Sow with no cover as light...
| 4454 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ARMERIA maritima  Thrift, Sea Pink  Zones 3 to 9  är-me’ri-å må-rit’i-må  Perennial  Easy Plumbaginaceae, native to Greenland, Iceland, and northern Europe. Germination: Soak seeds in warm water for 6-8 hours before sowing. They are...
| 3745 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Annual Herbs
 ARTEMISIA annua  Sweet Annie    är-te-miz’i-å an’u-å  Annual Herb  Easy Asteraceae; native to southeastern Europe and Iran. Germination: Best sown indoors at a temperature of 68-72° with no cover as light aids in germination. Expect...
| 3972 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Perennial Herbs
 ARTEMISIA dracunculus var. dracunculus  Russian Tarragon  Zones 2 to 9  är-te-miz’i-å dra-kun’ku-lus  Perennial Herb  Easy Asteraceae; native to central and eastern Europe and southern Russia. Germination: Best sown indoors at 60-70°...
| 3399 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Perennial Herbs
 ARTEMISIA vulgaris  Mugwort  Zones 4 to 10  är-te-miz’i-å vul-gãr’is  Perennial Herb  Moderate Asteraceae; native to Eastern Europe. Germination: Best sown indoors at a temperature of 68-70° with no cover as light aids in germination....
| 2654 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ARUNCUS dioicus  Goat’s beard    Zones 3 to 7  å-run’kus di-o-i’cus  Perennial   Moderate Rosaceae, native to Europe and North America. Germination: Best sown indoors at alternating temperatures of 68 and 86°. Sow with no cover as...
| 3708 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 ASARINA antirrhiniflora  Vining Snapdragon    å-sär’i-nå an-ti-ri-ni-florå  Annual or Pot Plant*  Moderate Scrophulariaceae; native to the southern United States and Mexico. Germination: Sown indoors at a temperature of 68-70° with no...
| 4343 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Potted Plants
 ASARINA antirrhiniflora  Vining Snapdragon    å-sär’i-nå an-ti-ri-ni-florå  Annual or Pot Plant*  Moderate Scrophulariaceae; native to the southern United States and Mexico. Germination: Sown indoors at a temperature of 68-70° with no...
| 5051 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 ASCLEPIAS fruticosa  Milk Bush    as-kle’pe-us fru-ti-ko’så   Annual  Easy  Asclepiadaceae; native to Africa. Germination: For best results and earliest fruiting, the seeds are best sown indoors at alternating temperatures of 68 and...
| 4609 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ASCLEPIAS tuberosa  Butterfly Weed  Zones 4 to 9  a-skle’pe-us tu-ber-o’så  Perennial  Moderate  Asclepiadaceae; native to the United States and Canada. Germination: Best sown indoors at alternating temperatures of 68 and 86°. Sow at...
| 3651 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Vegetables
 ASPARAGUS officinalis  Asparagus  Zones 2 to 7  as-pãr’å-gus o-fis-i-nå’lis  Perennial Vegetable  Difficult Liliaceae; native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa. Germination: Before sowing, soak the seeds in warm water for 48 hours....
| 2478 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Potted Plants
 ASPARAGUS species  Asparagus Ferns    as-pãr’å-gus  Pot Plant  Easy Liliaceae; native to Africa and Asia. Germination: Soak seeds in water for 24 hours before sowing and use fresh seeds as they do not store well. Sow seeds indoors, at...
| 5266 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ASTER hybrids Michaelmas  Daisy  Zones in text below  as’ter  Perennial  Easy Asteracea; nativity in text below. Germination: Best sown indoors at alternating temperatures of 65 and 85° and with no cover as light aids in germination....
| 3949 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ASTILBE x arendsii  False Spirea  Zones 4 to 8  å-stil’be å-rend’se  Perennial  Moderate Saxifragaceae; a hybrid of garden origin. Germination: Best sown indoors at a temperature of 55-72° and with no cover as light aids in...
| 4946 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ASTRANTIA major  Masterwort  Zones 4 to 7  as-tran’shi-å ma’jôr  Perennial  Difficult Apiaceae, native to Europe. Germination: Sow indoors at a temperature of 58-62° and at a depth of 4 times the size of the seeds. Expect erratic...
| 4149 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 AURINIA saxatilis  Basket of Gold  Zones 4 to 8  â-rin’e-å saks-at’i-lis  Perennial  Easy Brassicaceae, native to the Mediterranean. Germination: Best sown indoors, in spring or summer, at alternating temperatures of 55 and 72° and...
| 4324 hits | Print | Read more

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Gardeners' Quotes

ON A SEED

This was the goal of the leaf and the root.
For this did the blossom burn its hour.
This little grain is the ultimate fruit.
This is the awesome vessel of power.

For this is the source of the root and the bud...
World unto world unto world remolded.
This is the seed, compact of God,
Wherein all mystery is enfolded.
Georgie Starbuck Galbraith, The New York Times, 1960