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Edibles/Vegetables
 ABELMOSCHUS esculentus  Okra    a-bel-mos’kus es-ku-len’tus  Vegetable  Easy Malvaceae; native to the tropics. Germination: If the summer growing season is short and spring is cool, start seeds indoors, 4-6 weeks before planting out, at a...
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Flowers/Annuals
 ABELMOSCHUS manihot  Hibiscus, Mallow    a-bel-mos’kus man-i-hot  Annual  Easy Malvaceae; native to Europe and Asia. Germination: For best results, clip seeds before sowing, or soak them in water-they will sink when they are ready to be...
| 5417 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Potted Plants
 ABUTILON x hybridum  Flowering Maple  Zone 10  a-bu’til-on x hi’brid-um  Pot Plant  Easy Malvaceae; native to South America. Germination: To grow as houseplants, sow anytime of the year, barely covering the seed and maintaining a...
| 5771 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ACANTHUS species  Bear’s Breeches  Zones variable  å-kan’thus  Perennial  Challenging Acanthaceae; native to Southern Europe. Germination: Sow seeds in their permanent location if possible; Acanthus resents transplanting. Sow indoors...
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Flowers/Perennials
 ACHILLEA species  Milfoil, Yarrow  Zones 3-10  å-kil’le-å  Perennial  Easy Asteraceae; native to Europe and Asia. Germination: The fine seed requires light to germinate, so leave it uncovered. Sow outdoors anytime in spring or summer, up...
| 5195 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Potted Plants
 ACHIMENES cultivars  Magic Flower, Nut Orchid  Zone 10  å-kim’in-ez  Pot Plant, Bedding Plant  Challenging Gesneriaceae; native to tropical America. Germination: Sow indoors anytime of the year for use as a container plant. For outdoor...
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Flowers/Bedding Plants
 ACHIMENES cultivars  Magic Flower, Nut Orchid  Zone 10  å-kim’in-ez  Pot Plant, Bedding Plant  Challenging Gesneriaceae; native to tropical America. Germination: Sow indoors anytime of the year for use as a container plant. For outdoor...
| 5161 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
ACONITUM hybrid  Monkshood  Zones 3-8  a-ko-ni’tum  Perennial  Challenging Ranunculaceae; native to China. Germination: Sow outdoors in late fall or early winter, covering the seeds with 4 times their thickness in soil. Indoors, place the...
| 5178 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 AGAPANTHUS africanus & hybrids  African Lily  Variable  ag-å-pan’thus af’ri-ka’nus  Perennial, Pot Plant  Moderate Lilaceae; native to northeast Africa. Germination: Sow indoors anytime, covering the seeds lightly and maintaining a...
| 4923 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 AGASTACHE cana   Giant Hyssop  Zones 5-10  åg-å-stak’-e ka’na   Perennial  Easy   Lamiaceae; native to New Mexico and West Texas. Germination: Sow indoors, covering the seeds with 4 times their thickness in soil and maintaining a...
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Edibles/Perennial Herbs
 AGASTACHE foeniculum  Anise Hyssop  Zones 3 to 9  å-gå’ståk’e fo-nik’u-lum  Perennial Herb  Easy Lamiaceae; native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean. Germination: Best sown indoors at a temperature of 68-70° and with no cover...
| 3894 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
AGERATUM houstonianum Floss Flower    a-jer-å’tum hos-toni-e-a’num Annual Easy Asteraceae; native to Mexico. Germination: For outdoor growth, sow indoors 6-8 weeks before planting outside; for container growth, sow anytime of the year. Leave...
| 4464 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ALCEA rosa (Althea rosea)  Hollyhock  Zones 3-9  al-se’å ros’å  Biennial, Perennial  Easy Malvaceae; native to China. Germination: Sow perennial varieties outdoors anytime in spring or summer, up to 2 months before first fall frost....
| 4018 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Biennials
 ALCEA rosa (Althea rosea)  Hollyhock  Zones 3-9  al-se’å ros’å  Biennial, Perennial  Easy Malvaceae; native to China. Germination: Sow perennial varieties outdoors anytime in spring or summer, up to 2 months before first fall frost....
| 7908 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ALCHEMILLA mollis  Lady’s Mantle  Zones 4-9  al-kem-ill‘å mol’is  Perennial  Moderate Rosaceae; native to Europe and Asia. Germination: For best results, sow indoors, leaving seed uncovered and maintaining 65-68° F during...
| 3699 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Vegetables
 ALLIUM ampeloprasum Porrum Group  Leek    al’e-um am-pe’lo-pra-sum  Vegetable  Easy Liliaceae; native to Europe, North Africa, and Asia. Germination: Best started indoors as transplanted leeks have more vigor and get a head start on their...
| 2932 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Vegetables
 ALLIUM cepa  Onion    al’e-um se’på  Vegetable  Easy Liliaceae; nativity unknown. Germination: Best sown outdoors in situ after all danger of frost is past in the spring and the soil is warm. In Zones 8 and warmer, seeds can be sown in...
| 2972 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Vegetables
 ALLIUM cepa Aggregatum Group  Shallots    al’e-um se’på  Vegetable  Moderate Liliaceae; native to western Asia. Germination: Best sown indoors at a temperature of 68-70°. Seeds can also be sown outdoors in situ after all danger of frost...
| 3626 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Perennial Herbs
 ALLIUM schoenoprasum  Chives  Zones 3 to 7  al’e-um sho’-no-pra-sum  Perennial Herb  Easy Liliaceae; native to Europe and Asia. Germination: Sow indoors at a temperature of 68-70° and at a depth of 4 times the size of the seeds. Expect...
| 3247 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ALLIUM species  Flowering Onion  Zones in text below  al’le-um species  Perennial  Easy Lilaceae; native to Asia and Europe. Germination: Allium species have erratic germination, but the rate is improved by pre-chilling the seed in a...
| 3311 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ALSTROEMERIA aurea (aurantiaca) hybrids  Peruvian Lily  Zones 6 to 10  al-stre-mer’e-å  Perennial  Challenging   Alstromeriaceae; native to South America. Germination: Sow outdoors in early spring while the soil is cool. Or sow...
| 4326 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 ALTERNANTHERA, dentata  Joseph’s Coat    al-ter-nan’the-rå den-ta’tå  Annual  Easy Amaranthaceae; native to West Indies and Brazil. Germination: For best results, sow indoors leaving the seeds uncovered and maintaining temperatures...
| 4365 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ALYSSUM montanum Basket of Gold Zones 5-8  å-liss’um mön’ta-num Perennial    Brassicaceae; native to the Mediterranean. Germination: Sow outdoors in early spring, leaving seed uncovered, or Sow indoors, leaving seeds uncovered and...
| 4153 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 AMARANTHUS tricolor, A. caudatus , A. creuntus  Summer Poinsettia, Joseph’s Coat, Love Lies-Bleeding, Princess Feather    am-å-ran’thus try’kull-lûr   Annual   Easy   Amaranthaceae; native to †he Tropics, India, and the...
| 4907 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 AMMI majus  False Queen Anne’s Lace    am’mi ma’jus   Annual  Easy Apiaceae; native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa. Germination: Sow outdoors in spring, barely covering the seed. Or sow indoors, leaving seed  uncovered and...
| 4827 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Biennials
 AMMOBIUM alatum, A. ‘Bikini’  Winged Everlasting   Zone 9  am-mo’be-um a-lay’tum a. bi-ke’ne  Biennial, Annual   Easy Asteraceae; native to Australia. Germination: Sow outdoors anytime, spring or summer, up to 2 months before...
| 5453 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 AMMOBIUM alatum, A. ‘Bikini’  Winged Everlasting   Zone 9  am-mo’be-um a-lay’tum a. bi-ke’ne  Biennial, Annual   Easy Asteraceae; native to Australia. Germination: Sow outdoors anytime, spring or summer, up to 2 months before...
| 3999 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Annual Herbs
 ANETHUM graveolens  Dill    å-ne’thum grå-veo’-lenz  Annual Herb  Easy Apiaceae; native to southwest Asia. Germination: Sow indoors at a temperature of 60-70°. Sow in individual pots to facilitate transplanting of the tap root....
| 4306 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ANGELICA species   Angelica   Variable  an-jel’e-kå   Perennial   Challenging Carrot family (Apiaceae); native to Eastern Europe and North America. Germination: Sow outdoors in late fall for spring germination, or sow indoors after...
| 3142 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Perennial Herbs
 ANGUISORBA minor (Poterium sanguisorba)  Salad Burnet  Zones 3 to 9  sang-gwi-sôr’bå mi’nôr  Perennial Herb  Easy Rosaceae; native to Europe and west Asia. Germination: Sow seeds indoors at a temperature of 68-70° and at a depth of 4...
| 4332 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Annual Herbs
 ANTHRISCUS cerefolium  Chervil    an-thris’cus ser-e-fol’e-um  Annual  Easy Apiaceae; native to southeastern Europe and western Asia. Germination: Sow outdoors in early spring or sow indoors at a temperature of 60-70°. Expect germination...
| 4231 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 ANTIRRHINUM majus   Snapdragon    an-ti-ri’num ma’jus  Annual    Easy Scrophulariaceae, native to Europe and the Mediterranean. Germination: Best sown indoors, 6-8 weeks before planting out, at a temperature of 68-70° and with no...
| 4345 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Vegetables
 APIUM graveolens var. dulce  Celery    ap’e-um grå-ve’o-lenz dul’cha  Vegetable  Difficult Apiaceae; native to Eurasia. Germination: Sow seeds indoors, 10-12 weeks before planting out, at a temperature of 70-75° with no cover as light...
| 3315 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Vegetables
 APIUM graveolens var. rapaceum  Celeriac    ap’e-um grå-ve’o-lenz rå-pa’se-um  Vegetable  Moderate Apiaceae; native to Europe. Germination: Sow seeds indoors at 68-70° with no cover as light aids in germination. Seeds will germinate...
| 2176 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 AQUILEGIA species  Columbine Zones 4 to 8  ak-wi-le'ji-å  Perennial   Easy Ranunculaceae, native to the northern hemisphere. Germination: Sow seeds indoors at a temperature of 68-70° and with no cover as light aids in germination. Expect...
| 3281 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ARABIS caucasica  Rock Cress, Wall Cress  Zones 4 to 8  ar’å-bis kâ-kas’i-kå  Perennial  Moderate Brassicaceae, native to the Mediterranean. Germination: Best sown indoors at alternating temperatures of 55 and 72°. Sow with no cover...
| 3595 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Vegetables
 ARACHIS hypogaea  Peanut    å-ra’kis hi-po-geå  Vegetable  Easy Fabaceae; native to southern Brazil. Germination: Best sown outdoors in situ after all danger of frost is past in the spring and when the soil is warm. Seeds can also be sown...
| 2279 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 ARCTOTIS stoechadifolia  African Daisy    ärk-to’tis sto-e-kad-i-fo’li-å   Annual   Moderate   Asteraceae, native to South Africa. Germination: Best sown indoors, 6-8 weeks before planting out, at alternating temperatures of 55 and...
| 4061 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ARISAEMA sikokianum   Jack-in-Pulpit  Zones 5 to 9  ar-i-se’må si-kok-e’a-num   Perennial  Difficult Araceae, native to Asia and North America. Germination: Sow indoors at alternating temperatures of 55 and 72°. Sow at a depth of 4...
| 3905 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 ARISTOLOCHIA littoralis  Calico flower    a-ris-to-lo’ki-å lit-to-ra’lis  Annual*  Moderate Aristolochiaceae, native to the Tropics. Germination: Best sown indoors at alternating temperatures of 68 and 86°. Sow with no cover as light...
| 4326 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ARMERIA maritima  Thrift, Sea Pink  Zones 3 to 9  är-me’ri-å må-rit’i-må  Perennial  Easy Plumbaginaceae, native to Greenland, Iceland, and northern Europe. Germination: Soak seeds in warm water for 6-8 hours before sowing. They are...
| 3657 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Annual Herbs
 ARTEMISIA annua  Sweet Annie    är-te-miz’i-å an’u-å  Annual Herb  Easy Asteraceae; native to southeastern Europe and Iran. Germination: Best sown indoors at a temperature of 68-72° with no cover as light aids in germination. Expect...
| 3878 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Perennial Herbs
 ARTEMISIA dracunculus var. dracunculus  Russian Tarragon  Zones 2 to 9  är-te-miz’i-å dra-kun’ku-lus  Perennial Herb  Easy Asteraceae; native to central and eastern Europe and southern Russia. Germination: Best sown indoors at 60-70°...
| 3367 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Perennial Herbs
 ARTEMISIA vulgaris  Mugwort  Zones 4 to 10  är-te-miz’i-å vul-gãr’is  Perennial Herb  Moderate Asteraceae; native to Eastern Europe. Germination: Best sown indoors at a temperature of 68-70° with no cover as light aids in germination....
| 2601 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ARUNCUS dioicus  Goat’s beard    Zones 3 to 7  å-run’kus di-o-i’cus  Perennial   Moderate Rosaceae, native to Europe and North America. Germination: Best sown indoors at alternating temperatures of 68 and 86°. Sow with no cover as...
| 3623 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 ASARINA antirrhiniflora  Vining Snapdragon    å-sär’i-nå an-ti-ri-ni-florå  Annual or Pot Plant*  Moderate Scrophulariaceae; native to the southern United States and Mexico. Germination: Sown indoors at a temperature of 68-70° with no...
| 4244 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Potted Plants
 ASARINA antirrhiniflora  Vining Snapdragon    å-sär’i-nå an-ti-ri-ni-florå  Annual or Pot Plant*  Moderate Scrophulariaceae; native to the southern United States and Mexico. Germination: Sown indoors at a temperature of 68-70° with no...
| 4961 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Annuals
 ASCLEPIAS fruticosa  Milk Bush    as-kle’pe-us fru-ti-ko’så   Annual  Easy  Asclepiadaceae; native to Africa. Germination: For best results and earliest fruiting, the seeds are best sown indoors at alternating temperatures of 68 and...
| 4462 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ASCLEPIAS tuberosa  Butterfly Weed  Zones 4 to 9  a-skle’pe-us tu-ber-o’så  Perennial  Moderate  Asclepiadaceae; native to the United States and Canada. Germination: Best sown indoors at alternating temperatures of 68 and 86°. Sow at...
| 3568 hits | Print | Read more
Edibles/Vegetables
 ASPARAGUS officinalis  Asparagus  Zones 2 to 7  as-pãr’å-gus o-fis-i-nå’lis  Perennial Vegetable  Difficult Liliaceae; native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa. Germination: Before sowing, soak the seeds in warm water for 48 hours....
| 2446 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Potted Plants
 ASPARAGUS species  Asparagus Ferns    as-pãr’å-gus  Pot Plant  Easy Liliaceae; native to Africa and Asia. Germination: Soak seeds in water for 24 hours before sowing and use fresh seeds as they do not store well. Sow seeds indoors, at...
| 5170 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ASTER hybrids Michaelmas  Daisy  Zones in text below  as’ter  Perennial  Easy Asteracea; nativity in text below. Germination: Best sown indoors at alternating temperatures of 65 and 85° and with no cover as light aids in germination....
| 3876 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ASTILBE x arendsii  False Spirea  Zones 4 to 8  å-stil’be å-rend’se  Perennial  Moderate Saxifragaceae; a hybrid of garden origin. Germination: Best sown indoors at a temperature of 55-72° and with no cover as light aids in...
| 4842 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 ASTRANTIA major  Masterwort  Zones 4 to 7  as-tran’shi-å ma’jôr  Perennial  Difficult Apiaceae, native to Europe. Germination: Sow indoors at a temperature of 58-62° and at a depth of 4 times the size of the seeds. Expect erratic...
| 4032 hits | Print | Read more
Flowers/Perennials
 AURINIA saxatilis  Basket of Gold  Zones 4 to 8  â-rin’e-å saks-at’i-lis  Perennial  Easy Brassicaceae, native to the Mediterranean. Germination: Best sown indoors, in spring or summer, at alternating temperatures of 55 and 72° and...
| 4218 hits | Print | Read more

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Gardeners' Quotes

"Vines provide a distinct ornamental touch; while their versatility in size, texture, color and bloom time artfully blends architecture with the landscape," Natural Life, Guide to Landscape Plants-Second Edition.